tail(1)								      tail(1)



NAME
  tail - Writes a file to standard output, beginning at a specified point

SYNOPSIS

  tail [-f | -r ] [-c number | -n number][file]

  tail [+number | -number][unit][-f | -r][file]

  The tail command writes the named file (standard input by default) to stan-
  dard output, beginning at a point you specify.

FLAGS

  -c number
      Displays the remainder of the file from the starting point number where
      number is measured in bytes. The sign of number affects the location in
      the file at which to begin the copying:

      + (plus sign)
	  Copying begins relative to the beginning of the file.

      - (minus sign)
	  Copying begins relative to the end of the file.

      no sign
	  Copying begins relative to the end of the file. The origin for
	  counting is 1, that is, -c +1 represents the first byte of the
	  file, -c -1 the last.

  -f  Does not end after it copies the last line of the input file if the
      input file is not read from a pipe, but enters an endless loop in which
      it sleeps for a second and then attempts to read and copy further
      records from the input file.  Thus, it can be used to monitor the
      growth of a file being written by another process.  Has no effect if
      specified with -r.

  -n number
      Displays remainder of file from the starting point number where number
      is measured in lines.  The sign of number affects the location in the
      file, measured in lines, to begin the copying:

      + (plus) sign
	  Copying begins relative to the beginning of the file.

      - (minus) sign
	  Copying begins relative to the end of the file.

      no sign
	  Copying begins relative to the end of the file. The origin for
	  counting is 1, that is, -n +1 represents the first byte of the
	  file, -n -1 the last.

  -r  Causes tail to print lines from the end of the file in reverse order.
      The default for -r is to print the entire file this way.	Overrides -f.

  -[number]l

  -[number]b

  -[number]k

  -[number]c

  -[number]m
      Begins reading number lines (l), 512-byte blocks (b), kilobyte blocks
      (k), characters (c and m) from the end of the input.  The m argument
      counts multi-byte characters as single-byte characters, while c counts
      characters byte-by-byte but does not break multi-byte characters.

      The default unit is l for lines. The default number is 10 for all
      units.



  +[number]l

  +[number]b

  +[number]k

  +[number]c

  +[number]m
      Begins reading number lines (l), 512-byte blocks (b), 1-kilobyte blocks
      (k), or characters (c and m) from the beginning of the input.  The m
      argument counts multi-byte characters as single-byte characters, while
      c counts characters byte-by-byte but does not break multi-byte charac-
      ters.

      The default unit is l for lines. The default number is 10 for all
      units.

DESCRIPTION

  If you do not specify -f, -r, -number, or +number, tail begins reading 10
  lines before the end of the file.  - (end of input) is the default starting
  point, l (lines) is the default unit, and 10 is the default number.

  By specifying +, you can direct tail to read from the beginning of the
  file.	 By specifying a number or a unit, or both, you can change the point
  at which tail begins reading.

  The unit argument can specify lines, blocks, or characters.  The tail com-
  mand can begin reading number (10 by default) units from either the end or
  the beginning of the file.

  The block size is either 512 bytes or 1 kilobyte.

EXAMPLES

   1.  To display the last 10 lines of a file named notes, enter:
	    tail  notes


   2.  To specify how far from the end to start, enter:
	    tail  -20  notes


       This displays the last 20 lines of notes.

   3.  To specify how far from the beginning to start, enter:
	    tail  +200c	 notes	|  more


       This displays notes a page at a time, starting with the 200th charac-
       ter from the beginning.

   4.  To follow the growth of a file named accounts, enter:
	    tail  -1  -f  accounts


       This displays the last line of accounts.	 Once every second, tail
       displays any lines that have been added to the file.  This continues
       until stopped by pressing the Interrupt key sequence.

RELATED INFORMATION

  Commands:  cat(1), head(1), more(1)/page(1), pg(1).