sed(1)								       sed(1)


  sed - Provides a stream line editor


  sed [-n] script [file...]

       sed [-n] [-e script]...[-f script_file...]...[file...]

  The sed command modifies lines from the specified file or from standard
  input according to edit commands specified and writes them to standard out-

  If you do not specify an argument to the sed command, the sed usage string
  is displayed.


  The sed command includes many features for selecting lines to be modified
  and making changes only to the selected lines.

  The sed command uses two work spaces for holding the line being modified:
  the pattern space, where the selected line is held, and the hold space,
  where a line can be stored temporarily.

  An edit script consists of individual subcommands, each one on a separate
  line.	 The general form of sed subcommands is as follows:

       [address_range] function [modifier ...]

  The sed command processes each input file by reading an input line into a
  pattern space, sequentially applying all sed subcommands in sequence whose
  addresses select that line, and writing the pattern space to standard out-
  put.	It then clears the pattern space and repeats this process for each
  line in the input file.  Some of the subcommands use a hold space to save
  all or part of the pattern space for subsequent retrieval.

  When a command includes an address, either a line number or a search pat-
  tern, only the addressed line or lines are affected by the command.  Other-
  wise, the command is applied to all lines.


       An address is either a decimal line number, a $, which addresses the
       last line of input, or a context address.  A context address is a reg-
       ular expression (R.E.) as described for grep, except that you can
       select the character delimiter for patterns.  The general form of the
       expression is as follows:


  The ? represents a character delimiter you select.  This delimiter cannot
  be a 2-byte international character support extended character.

  The default form for the pattern is as follows:


    +  In a context address, the construction \cexpressionc, where c is any
       character other than a backslash (\) or the newline character, is
       identical to /expression/.  If the character designated by c appears
       following a \ (backslash), then it is considered to be that literal
       character, which does not terminate the RE.  For example, in the con-
       text address \xabc\xdefx, the second x stands for itself, so that the
       regular expression is abcxdef.

    +  The sequence \n matches a newline character in the pattern space,
       except the terminating new line.

    +  A dot (.) matches any character except a terminating newline charac-
       ter.  That is, unlike grep, which cannot match a newline character in
       the middle of a line, sed can match a newline character in the pattern

  Certain commands allow you to specify one line or a range of lines to which
  the command applies.	These commands are called addressed commands.  The
  following rules apply to addressed commands:

    +  A command line with no address selects every line.

    +  A command line with one address, expressed in context form, selects
       each line that matches the address.

    +  A command line with two addresses separated by a comma (,) or semi-
       colon (;) selects the entire range from the first line that matches
       the first address through the next line that matches the second. (If
       the second address is a number less than or equal to the line number
       first selected, only one line is selected.)  Thereafter, the process
       is repeated, looking again for the first address.


  -e script
      Uses the string script as an editing script.  If you are using just one
      -e flag and no -f flag, you can omit the -e flag and include the single
      script on the command line as an argument to sed.

  -f script_file
      Uses script_file as the source of the edit script.  The script_file is
      a set of editing commands to be applied to file.

  -n  Suppresses all information normally written to standard output.


  Backslashes in text are treated like backslashes in the replacement string
  of an s command and can be used to protect initial spaces and tabs against
  the stripping that is done on every script line.

  The text argument accompanying the a\, c\, and i\ commands can continue
  onto more than one line, provided all lines but the last end with a \
  (backslash) to quote the newline character.

  The read_file and write_file arguments must end the command line and must
  be preceded by exactly one space.  Each write_file is created before pro-
  cessing begins.

  The sed command can process up to 99 commands in a file.

  In the following list of subcommands, the maximum number of permissible
  addresses for each subcommand is indicated in parentheses.  The sed script
  subcommands are as follows:

  (2){subcommand ...

  }   Groups subcommands enclosed in { } (braces).  The { (left brace) can be
      preceded by spaces and can be followed by spaces or tabs.	 The list of
      subcommands must be separated by newline characters.  The subcommands
      can also be preceded by spaces or tabs.  The terminating } (right
      brace) must be preceded by a newline character and then zero or more

  (1) a\

      Places text on the output before reading the next input line.

      Branches to the : command bearing the label.  If label is empty, it
      branches to the end of the script.


      Deletes the pattern space.  With a 0 or 1 address or at the end of a
      2-address range, places text on the output.  Then it starts the next

      Deletes the pattern space.  Then it starts the next cycle.

      Deletes the initial segment of the pattern space through the first new-
      line character.  Then it starts the next cycle.

      Replaces the contents of the pattern space with the contents of the
      hold space.

      Appends the contents of the hold space to the pattern space.

      Replaces the contents of the hold space with the contents of the pat-
      tern space.

      Appends the contents of the pattern space to the hold space.


      Writes text to standard output before reading the next line into the
      pattern space.

      Writes the pattern space to standard output, showing nonprinting
      characters as 3-digit octal values.  Long lines are folded, with the
      point of folding indicated by .  The end of each
      line is marked with a $.

      Certain characters are shown as escape sequences as follows:

      \\  Backslash

      \a  Alert

      \b  Backspace

      \f  Formfeed

      \n  Newline

      \r  Carriage-return

      \t  Tab

      \v  Vertical tab

      Writes the pattern space to standard output.  It replaces the pattern
      space with the next line of input.

      Appends the next line of input to the pattern space with an embedded
      newline character.  (The current line number changes.)  You can use
      this to search for patterns that are split onto two lines.

      Writes the pattern space to standard output.

      Writes the initial segment of the pattern space through the first new-
      line character to standard output.

      Branches to the end of the script.  It does not start a new cycle.

  (1)r read_file
      Reads the contents of read_file.	It places contents on the output
      before reading the next input line.

      Substitutes the replacement string for the first occurrence of the pat-
      tern in the pattern space.  Any character that is entered after the s
      command can substitute for the / (slash) separator, except \
      (backslash) and the newline character.  Within the regular expression
      and replacement string, the delimiter can appear as a literal if it is
      preceded by a \ (backslash).

      An & (ampersand) appearing in the replacement string is replaced by the
      string matching the RE.  The special meaning of & in this context can
      be suppressed by preceding it with a \ (backslash).  The characters \n,
      where n is a digit, are replaced by the text matched by the correspond-
      ing backreference expression.

      A line can be split by substituting a newline character into it.	You
      must escape the newline character in the replacement string by preced-
      ing it with a \ backslash.  A substitution is considered to have been
      performed even if the replacement string is identical to the string
      that it replaces.

      You can add zero or more of the following flags:

      n	  Where n is 1-512, substitutes replacement for the nth occurrence of
	  pattern on each addressed line, rather than for the first

      g	  Substitutes replacement for all nonoverlapping instances of pattern
	  on each addressed line, rather than for just the first one (or for
	  the one specified by n).

      p	  Writes the pattern space to standard output if a replacement was

      w write_file
	  Writes the pattern space to write_file if a replacement was made.
	  Appends the pattern space to write_file.  If write_file was not
	  already created by a previous write by this sed script, sed creates
	  it.  Each write_file is created before processing begins.

      Branches to :label in the script file if any substitutions were made
      since the most recent reading of an input line execution of a t subcom-
      mand.  If you do not specify label, control transfers to the end of the

  (2)w write_file
      Appends the pattern space to write_file.

      Exchanges the contents of the pattern space and the hold space.

      Replaces all occurrences of characters in pattern1 with the correspond-
      ing characters from pattern2.  The byte lengths of pattern1 and pat-
      tern2 must be equal.

      Applies the specified sed subcommand only to lines not selected by the
      address or addresses.

      This script entry simply marks a branch point to be referenced by the b
      and t commands.  This label can be any sequence of eight or fewer

      Writes the current line number to standard output as a line.

  (2){subcommand ...

  }   Groups subcommands enclosed in { } (braces).

  (0) Ignores an empty command.

      If a # (number sign) appears as the first character on the first line
      of a script file, that entire line is treated as a comment, with one
      exception.  If the character after the # is an n, the default output is
      suppressed.  The rest of the line after the #n is ignored.  A script
      must contain at least one noncomment line.


  The h subcommand for sed does not work properly.  When you use the h sub-
  command to place text into the hold area, only the last line of the speci-
  fied text is saved.  You can use the H subcommand to append text to the
  hold area.  The H subcommand and all others dealing with the hold area work


   1.  To perform a global change, enter:
	    sed	 "s/happy/enchanted/g"	chap1  >

       This replaces each occurrence of happy found in the file chap1 with
       enchanted, and puts the edited version in a separate file named  The g at the end of the s subcommand tells sed to make as
       many substitutions as possible on each line.  Without the g, sed
       replaces only the first happy on a line.

       The sed stream editor operates as a filter.  It reads text from stan-
       dard input or from the files named on the command line (chap1 in this
       example), modifies this text, and writes it to standard output.
       Unlike most editors, it does not replace the original file.  This
       makes sed a powerful command when used in pipelines.

   2.  To use sed as a filter in a pipeline (sh only), enter:
	    pr	chap2 | sed  "s/Page  *[0-9]*$/(&)/" | print

       This encloses the page numbers in parentheses before printing chap2.
       The pr command puts a heading and page number at the top of each page,
       then sed puts the page numbers in parentheses, and the print command
       prints the edited listing.

       The sed pattern /Page *[0-9]*$/ matches page numbers that appear at
       the end of a line.  The s subcommand changes this to (&), where the &
       stands for the pattern that was matched (for example, Page  5).

   3.  To display selected lines of a file, enter:
	    sed	 -n  "/food/p" chap3

       This displays each line in chap3 that contains the word food.  Nor-
       mally, sed copies every line to standard output after it is edited.
       The -n flag stops sed from doing this.  You then use subcommands like
       p to write specific parts of the text.  Without the -n, this example
       displays all the lines in chap3, and it shows each line containing
       food twice.

   4.  To perform complex editing, enter:
	    sed	 -f  script.sed	 chap4	>

       It is always a good idea to create a sed script file when you want to
       do anything complex.  You can then test and modify your script before
       using it.  You can also reuse your script to edit other files.  Create
       the script file with an interactive text editor.

   5.  A sample sed script follows:
	    b join

       This sed script joins each line that ends with a \ (backslash) to the
       line that follows it.  First, the pattern /\\$/ selects a line that
       ends with a \ for the group of commands enclosed in { }.	 The N sub-
       command then appends the next line, embedding a newline character.
       The s/\\\n// deletes the \ (backslash) and embedded newline character.
       Finally, b join branches back to the label :join to check for a \
       (backslash) at the end of the newly joined line.	 Without the branch,
       sed writes the joined line and reads the next one before checking for
       a second \ character.

       The N subcommand causes sed to stop immediately if there are no more
       lines of input (that is, if N reads the End-of-File character).	It
       does not copy the pattern space to standard output before stopping.
       This means that if the last line of the input ends with a \
       (backslash) character, then it is not copied to the output.


  Commands:  awk(1), grep(1)/egrep(1)/fgrep(1), vi(1)/vedit(1)/view(1).

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