diff(1)								      diff(1)

  diff - Compares text files


  diff [-c | -C number | -e | -f | -h | -n] [-bilrstw] [-Sfile] directory1

  diff [-c | -C number | -e | -f | -h | -n] [-bitw] file1 file2

  diff [-Dstring] [-bitw] file1 file2


  The -c, -C, -e, -f, -h, and -n flags are mutually exclusive.

  The -r, -s, and -S flags can be specified with directory comparisons only.

  The -b, -i, -l, -t, and -w flags can be used in combination with any others
  and in both file and directory comparisons.

  -b  Causes trailing white space at the end of a line to be treated as a
      single newline character.

  -c  Produces a listing with the default number of lines of context (3
      lines).  The output lists the files being compared and their last
      modification dates, then lists the differing lines.  Lines that are
      changed from one file to the other are marked in both files with an !
      (exclamation point).  Changes that lie within the specified number of
      lines of each other are grouped together on output.

  -C number
      Produces output that provides number lines of context (where number is
      a positive decimal integer).

      Causes diff to create a merged version of file1 and file2 on the stan-
      dard output, with C preprocessor controls included.  Thus, a compila-
      tion of the result without defining string is equivalent to compiling
      file1, while defining string yields file2.

  -e  Produces a script of a, c, d, and s commands for the editor ed, which
      can recreate file2 from file1.  In connection with -e, the following
      shell program can help maintain multiple versions of a file.  Only an
      ancestral file ($1) and a chain of version-to-version ed scripts ($2,
      $3, ...) made by diff need be on hand.  A "latest version" appears on
      the standard output.
	   (shift; cat $*; echo '1,$p') | ed - $1

      Extra commands are added to the output when comparing directories with
      -e; the result is a sh script for converting text files common to the
      directories from their state in directory1 to their state in

  -f  Produces a script similar to that of -e, not useful with ed, and in the
      opposite order.

  -h  Performs a faster comparison.  This flag only works when the changed
      sections are short and well separated, but it does work on files of any
      length.  The -e and -f flags are not available when you use the -h

  -i  Ignores the case of letters.  For example, A is considered identical to

  -l  Specifies long output format; each text file diff listing is piped
      through pr to paginate it, other differences are remembered and summar-
      ized after all text file differences are reported.  (Directory com-
      parisons only.)

  -n  Produces a script similar to that of -e, but in the opposite order and
      with a count of changed lines on each insert or delete command.  This
      is the form used by the revision control system (RCS).

  -r  Checks files in common subdirectories recursively.

  -s  Reports identical files, which are otherwise not mentioned.

      Starts a directory diff in the middle, beginning with file.  (Directory
      comparisons only.)

  -t  Expands tabs in output lines.  Normal or -c output adds characters to
      the front of each line that can affect the indentation of the original
      source lines and make the output listing difficult to interpret.	This
      flag preserves the original source's indentation.

  -w  Is similar to -b, but causes whitespace (spaces and tabs) to be
      ignored.	For example, if ( a == b ) is considered identical to


  Input Options

       If neither file1 nor file2 is a directory, then either can be given as
       - (dash), in which case the standard input is used.  If file1 is a
       directory and file2 is a file, or vice versa, a file in the specified
       directory with the same name as the specified file is used.

       If both arguments are directories, diff sorts the contents of the
       directories by name, and then runs the regular diff file algorithm on
       text files that are different.  Binary files that differ, common sub-
       directories, and files that appear in only one directory are also

  Output Options

       There are several choices for output format.  The default output for-
       mat contains lines of these forms:

       number1 a number2,number3
       number1,number2 d number3
       number1,number2 c number3,number4

       These lines resemble ed commands to convert file1 into file2.  a indi-
       cates that a line or lines were added to one of the files; d indicates
       that a line or lines were deleted; and c indicates that a line or
       lines were changed.  The numbers after the letters pertain to file2.
       In fact, by exchanging a for d and reading backward one can ascertain
       equally how to convert file2 into file1.	 As in ed, identical pairs
       where number1 = number2 or number3 = number4 are abbreviated as a sin-
       gle number.

       Following each of these lines come all the lines that are affected in
       the first file, flagged by < (left angle bracket), then all the lines
       that are affected in the second file, flagged by > (right angle

       Except in rare circumstances, diff finds the smallest sufficient set
       of file differences.


   1.  To compare two files, enter:
	    diff chap1.bak chap1

       This displays the differences between the files chap1.bak and chap1.

   2.  To compare two files, ignoring differences in the amount of white
       space, enter:
	    diff -b prog.c.bak prog.c

       If two lines differ only in the number of spaces and tabs between
       words, then the diff command considers them to be the same.

   3.  To create a file containing commands that the ed command can use to
       reconstruct one file from another, enter:
	    diff -e ch2 ch2.old > new.old.ed

       This creates a file named new.to.old.ed that contains the ed subcom-
       mands to change chap2 back into the version of the text found in
       chap2.old.  In most cases, new.to.old.ed is a much smaller file than

   4.  You can save disk space by deleting chap2.old, and you can reconstruct
       it at any time by entering:
	    (cat new.old.ed ; echo '1,$p') | ed - ch2 > ch2.old

       The commands in parentheses add 1,$p to the end of the editing com-
       mands sent to the ed editor.  The 1,$p causes the ed command to write
       the file to standard output after editing it.  This modified command
       sequence is then piped to the ed command ( | ed ), and the editor
       reads it as standard input.  The - flag causes the ed command not to
       display the file size and other extra information, since it would be
       mixed with the text of chap2.old.


	     For the -h flag.

	     For the -l flag.


   1.  Editing scripts produced by the -e or -f flags cannot create lines
       consisting of a single . (dot) character.

   2.  Block, character, or FIFO special files cannot be used with diff
       because they cause the command to exit.

   3.  If lines at the end of a file are changed and other lines added, diff
       output may show this as a delete and add, as a change, or as a change
       and add. That is, diff is not expected to know what happened.


  An exit value of 0 (zero) indicates no differences, 1 indicates differences
  found, and a number greater than 1 indicates an error.


  Commands:  bdiff(1), cmp(1), comm(1), diff3(1), ed(1)/red(1), pr(1).